Margolis, H., Mccabe. P., (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: what to do, what to say. Intervention in school and clinic. 41(4), 218-227.
In this article, the authors made it their goal to layout a conceptual framework that operated within an understanding of self-efficacy, or the extent to which a student views their own capability, on three levels. The first was the problem, that students with low levels of self-efficacy are often experience lower levels of academic achievement (p. 219). The second, that various theories exist on how to raise self-efficacy and, in turn, raise academic achievement (p. 219). The third, described some of the strategies for improving self-efficacy (p. 220). This was a well-articulated framework, grounded in previous theory and research provided the article with a sound foundation.
Given that this was not a primary study there was no real method of data collection and analysis involved. Nonetheless, the authors did provide an adequate bridge between their reported problem and their results by providing various strategies that “often work” (p. 225) to improve self-efficacy. Such strategies might include 1) the level of assigned tasks 2) using peer models 3) teaching specific learning strategies 4) using student choice and 5) reinforcing effort and correct strategy use (p. 220).
The combination of the described problem with the prescribed solution strategies allowed the reader to walk away with effective strategies for improving self-efficacy. These strategies were grounded in theory and research and made explicit by the author, but were also acknowledged to have limitations in that they do not always work (p. 225). The result of this articulation was an article that was clear, conceptualized well and useable for many educators but did not provide any need for further research or investigation.